Valuation analysis is often a key component of securities and financial markets litigation. The analysis necessary for calculating value is complex and requires a thorough understanding of the facts and issues of each case. Cornerstone Research approaches valuation matters using sound economic and financial principles, fitting the analysis to the problems at hand. The range of matters that require valuation analysis is widespread. Company valuations often are needed in disputes associated with mergers and acquisitions, initial public offerings, private placements, reorganizations, bankruptcies, divestitures, buyouts, and going-private transactions. Valuation calculations are also used in cases that focus on intellectual property rights, derivative securities, debt, and the valuation of operating divisions and subsidiaries.